Skip to main content

Response to ‘T-helper 17 cell cytokines and interferon type I: partners in crime in systemic lupus erythematosus?’

We read with great interest the article by Brkic and colleagues in a recent issue of Arthritis Research & Therapy [1]. In that study, the authors investigated the distribution of T helper (Th) subsets which produce IL-17A, IL-17 F, IL-21, and IL-22 in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in relation to their genetic IFN type I signature. Patients with an IFN type I-positive signature showed increased percentages of IL-17A- and IL-21-producing CCR6+ T cells. From these results, the authors conclude that IFN type I cells co-act with Th17 cytokines in the pathogenesis of SLE. Surprisingly, they excluded CD25+ T cells from their analysis. In a previous study, we showed that Th cells from SLE patients expressing CD25med and CD25high are also able to produce IFN-γ and IL-17A [2]. Therefore, it would be relevant to assess cytokine expression in CD4+CD25+ T cells from IFN type I-positive and IFN type I-negative SLE patients. Furthermore, it should be proven that the genetic signature is solely responsible for the increased IFN production by Th cells. In addition, their finding that CCR6+ T cells are capable of producing IL-21 indirectly confirms our previous observation that IL-17+ T cells are a main source of IL-21 in patients with SLE [3]. Possibly, IL-21 is orchestrating the Th1/Th17 axis.

Finally, we agree that there might be a co-activity between IFN-I- and IL-17-producing cells as described by Brkic and colleagues. However, considering our findings that T cells with a regulatory phenotype are able to produce IFN-γ and IL-17A in patients with SLE, we suggest that primarily the plasticity of T cells is altered in patients with SLE [4].







Systemic lupus erythematosus


T helper.


  1. Brkic Z, Corneth OB, van Helden-Meeuwsen CG, Dolhain RJ, Maria NI, Paulissen SM, Davelaar N, van Hamburg JP, van Daele PL, Dalm VA, van Hagen PM, Hazes JM, Versnel MA, Lubberts E: T-helper 17 cell cytokines and interferon type I: partners in crime in systemic lupus erythematosus?. Arthritis Res Ther. 2014, 16: R62-10.1186/ar4499.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Dolff S, Bijl M, Huitema MG, Limburg PC, Kallenberg CG, Abdulahad WH: Disturbed Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg balance in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Immunol. 2011, 141: 120-197.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Dolff S, Abdulahad WH, Westra J, Doornbos-van Der Meer B, Limburg PC, Kallenberg CG, Bijl M: Increase in IL-21 producing T-cells in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Arthritis Res Ther. 2011, 13: R157-10.1186/ar3474.

    Article  PubMed Central  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Koenen HJ, Smeets RL, Vink PM, van Rijssen E, Boots AM, Joosten I: Human CD25highFoxp3pos regulatory T cells differentiate into IL-17-producing cells. Blood. 2008, 112: 2340-2352. 10.1182/blood-2008-01-133967.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sebastian Dolff.

Additional information

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

All authors contributed to the interpretation of data. SD drafted the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Rights and permissions

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Dolff, S., Abdulahad, W.H. & Kallenberg, C.G. Response to ‘T-helper 17 cell cytokines and interferon type I: partners in crime in systemic lupus erythematosus?’. Arthritis Res Ther 16, 409 (2014).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • DOI: