Smith EU, Díaz-Torné C, Perez-Ruiz F, March LM. Epidemiology of gout: an update. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2010;24:811–27.
Singh G, Lingala B, Mithal A. Gout and hyperuricaemia in the USA: prevalence and trends. Rheumatology. 2019;58:2177–80.
Dalbeth N, Fransen J, Jansen TL, Neogi T, Schumacher HR, Taylor WJ. New classification criteria for gout: a framework for progress. Rheumatology. 2013;52:1748–53.
Neogi T, Jansen TL, Dalbeth N, Fransen J, Schumacher HR, Berendsen D, et al. Gout classification criteria: an American College of Rheumatology/European League against Rheumatism collaborative initiative. Ann Rheum Dis. 2015;74:1789–98.
Scire CA, Manara M, Cimmino MA, Govoni M, Salaffi F, Punzi L, et al. Gout impacts on function and health-related quality of life beyond associated risk factors and medical conditions: results from the KING observational study of the Italian Society for Rheumatology (SIR) Arthritis. Res Ther. 2013;15:R101.
Bernal JA, Quilis N, Andrés M, Sivera F, Pascual E. Gout: optimizing treatment to achieve a disease cure. Ther Adv Chronic Dis. 2016;7:135–44.
Grassi D, Pontremoli R, Bocale R, Ferri C, Desideri G. Therapeutic approaches to chronic hyperuricemia and gout. High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev. 2014;21:243–50.
Kiltz U, Smolen J, Bardin T, Cohen SA, Dalbeth N, Doherty M, et al. Treat-to-target (T2T) recommendations for gout. Ann Rheum Dis. 2016;76:1–7.
Roddy E, Choi HK. Epidemiology of gout. Rheum Dis Clin N Am. 2014;40:155–75.
Delbeth N, Merriman TR, Stamp LK. Gout. Lancet. 2016;388:2039–52.
Kuo CF, Grainge MJ, Zhang W, Doherty M. Global epidemiology of gout: prevalence,incidence and risk factors. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2015;11:649–62.
Rai SK, Fung TT, Lu N, Keller SF, Curhan GC, Choi HK. The dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet, western diet, and risk of gout in men: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2017;357:j1794.
Ebrahimpour-Koujan S, Saneei P, Larijani B, Esmaillzadeh A. Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages and dietary fructose in relation to risk of gout and hyperuricemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2020;60:1–10.
World Health Organization. Obesity. http://www.who.int/gho/ncd/risk_factors/obesity_text/en/. Accessed 14 Aug 2016.
Ter Maaten JC, Voorburg A, Heine RJ, Ter Wee PM, Donker AJ, Gans RO. Renal handling of urate and sodium during acute physiological hyperinsulinaemia in healthy subjects. Clin Sci (Lond). 1997;92:51–8.
Khanna D, Fitzgerald JD, Khanna PP, Bae S, Singh MK, Neogi T, et al. American College of Rheumatology guidelines for management of gout. Part 1: systematic nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapeutic approaches to hyperuricemia. Arthritis Care Res. 2012;64:1431–46.
Bhole V, de Vera M, Rahman MM, Krishnan E, Choi H. Epidemiology of gout in women: fifty-two-year follow-up of a prospective cohort. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:1069–76.
Cea Soriano L, Rothenbacher D, Choi HK, Garcia Rodriguez LA. Contemporary epidemiology of gout in the UK general population. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011;13:R39.
Maynard JW, McAdams DeMarco MA, Baer AN, Kottgen A, Folsom AR, Coresh J, et al. Incident gout in women and association with obesity in the atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study. Am J Med. 2012;125:717. e9–e17.
McAdams-DeMarco MA, Maynard JW, Baer AN, Coresh J. Hypertension and the risk of incident gout in a population-based study: the atherosclerosis risk in communities cohort. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2012;14:675–9.
Chen JH, Pan WH, Hsu CC, Yeh WT, Chuang SY, Chen PY, et al. Impact of obesity and hypertriglyceridemia on gout development with or without hyperuricemia: a prospective study. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2013;65:133–40.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). About the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. 2017 https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/about_nhanes.htm.
Strokes A, Collins JM, Grant BF, Scamuffa RF, Hsiao CW, Johnston SS, et al. Obesity progression between young adulthood and midlife and incident diabetes: a retrospective cohort study of U.S. adults. Diabetes Care. 2018;41(5):1025–31.
Yuan Y. Multiple imputation using SAS software. J StatSoftw. 2011;45:1–25.
Rockhill B, Newman B, Weinberg C. Use and misuse of population attributable fractions. Am J Public Health. 1998;88:15–9.
Wacholder S, Benichou J, Heineman EF, Hartge P, Hoover RN. Attributable risk: advantages of a broad definition of exposure. Am J Epidemiol. 1994;140:303–9.
Flegal KM, Kruszon-Moran D, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, Ogden CL. Trends in obesity among adults in the United States, 2005 to 2014. JAMA. 2016;315(21):2284–91.
Jia G, Shu X-O, Liu Y, Li H, Cai H, Gao J, et al. Association of adult weight gain with major health outcomes among middle-aged Chinese persons with low body weight in early adulthood. JAMA Network Open. 2019;2:e1917371.
Peter LE, James AP, John B, Christian DM, Charles AH, Edward R. Obesity, hypertension and diuretic use as risk factors for incident gout: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Arthritis Res Ther. 2018;20:1301–11.
Choi HK, Atkinson K, Karlson EW, Curhan G. Obesity, weight change, hypertension, diuretic use, and risk of gout in men: the health professionals follow-up study. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:742–8.
Puig JG, Martinez MA. Hyperuricemia, gout and the metabolic syndrome. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2008;20:187–91.
Dessein PH, Shipton EA, Stanwix AE, Joffe BI, Ramokgadi J. Beneficial effects of weight loss associated with moderate calorie/carbohydrate restriction and increased proportional intake of protein and unsaturated fat on serum urate and lipoprotein levels in gout: a pilot study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2000;59:539–43.
Dagfifinn A, Teresa N, Lars JV. Body mass index and the risk of gout: a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Eur J Nutr. 2014;53:1591–601.
Dalbeth N, Chen P, White M, Gamble GD, Barratt-Boyes C, Gow PJ, et al. Impact of bariatric surgery on serum urate targets in people with morbid obesity and diabetes: a prospective longitudinal study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2014;73:797–802.
Maglio C, Peltonen M, Neovius M, Jacobson P, Jacobsson L, Rudin A, Carlsson LM. Effects of bariatric surgery on gout incidence in the Swedish Obese Subjects study: a non-randomised, prospective, controlled intervention trial. Ann Rheum Dis. 2016;76:688–93.
Nielsen SM, Bartels EM, Henriksen M, Wæhrens EE, Gudbergsen H, Bliddal H. Weight loss for overweight and obese individuals with gout: a systematic review of longitudinal studies. Ann Rheum Dis. 2017;76:1870–82.
Glynn RJ, Campion EW, Silbert JE. Trends in serum uric acid levels 1961–1980. Arthritis Rheum. 1983;26:87–93.
Villegas R, Xiang YB, Cai QY, Fazio S, Linton MR, Li HL, et al. Prevalence and determinants of hyperuricemia in middle-aged, urban Chinese men. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2010;8:263–70.
Yamashita S, Matsuzawa Y, Tokunaga K, Fujioka S, Tarui S. Studies on the impaired metabolism of uric acid in obese subjects: marked reduction of renal urate excretion and its improvement by a low-calorie diet. Int J Obes. 1986;10:255–64.
Zhu Y, Zhang Y, Choi HK. The serum urate-lowering impact of weight loss among men with a high cardiovascular risk profile: The Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2010;49:2391–9.
McGill NW. The epidemiology and treatment of gout. Open Access Rheumatol Res Rev. 2011;3:73–82.
Cleophas MC, Crisan TO, Joosten LA. Factors modulating the inflammatory response in acute gouty arthritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2017;29:163–70.
Joosten LA, Netea MG, Mylona E, Koenders MI, Malireddi RK, Oosting M, et al. Engagement of fatty acids with toll-like receptor 2 drives interleukin-1beta production via the ASC/caspase 1 pathway in monosodium urate monohydrate crystal-induced gouty arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:3237–48.
Matsuura F, Yamashita S, Nakamura T, Nishida M, Nozaki S, Funahashi T, et al. Effect of visceral fat accumulation on uric acid metabolism in male obese subjects: visceral fat obesity is linked more closely to overproduction of uric acid than subcutaneous fat obesity. Metabolism. 1998;47:929–33.
Gao B, Zhou J, Ge J, Zhang YP, Chen F, Lau WB, et al. Association of maximum weight with hyperuricemia risk: a retrospective study of 21,414 Chinese people. PLoS One. 2012;7:e51186.
Shiozawa A, Szabo SM, Bolzani A, Cheung A, Choi HK. Serum uric acid and the risk of incident and recurrent gout: a systematic review. J Rheumatol. 2017;44:388–96.
Heinig M, Johnson RJ. Role of uric acid in hypertension, renal disease, and metabolic syndrome. Cleve Clin J Med. 2006;73:1059–64.
Soltani Z, Rasheed K, Kapusta DR, Reisin E. Potential role of uric acid in metabolic syndrome, hypertension, kidney injury, and cardiovascular diseases: is it time for reappraisal? Curr Hypertens Rep. 2013;15:175–81.
Lyngdoh T, Vuistiner P, Marques-Vidal P, Rousson V, Gérard W, Vollenweider P, et al. Serum uric acid and adiposity: deciphering causality using a bidirectional Mendelian randomization approach. PLoS One. 2012;7:e39321.
Chaudhary K, Malhotra K, Sowers J, Aroor A. Uric acid-key ingredient in the recipe for cardiorenal metabolic syndrome. Cardiorenal Med. 2013;3:208–20.
FitzGerald JD, Dalbeth N, Mikuls T, Brignardello-Petersen R, Gordon G, Abeles AM, et al. 2020 American College of Rheumatology guideline for the management of gout. Arthritis Care Res. 2020;0:1–17.
Williams PT. Effects of diet, physical activity and performance, and body weight on incident gout in ostensibly healthy, vigorously active men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87:1480–7.
Choi HK, Curhan G. Soft drinks, fructose consumption, and the risk of gout in men: prospective cohort study. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed). 2008;336(7639):309–12.
Choi HK, Willett W, Curhan G. Fructose-rich beverages and risk of gout in women. JAMA. 2010;304:2270–8.
Choi JW, Ford ES, Gao X, Choi HK. Sugar-sweetened soft drinks, diet soft drinks, and serum uric acid level: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;59:109–16.
Zykova SN, Storhaug HM, Toft I, Chadban SJ, Jenssen TG, White SL, et al. Cross-sectional analysis of nutrition and serum uric acid in two Caucasian cohorts: the AusDiab Study and the Tromsø study. Nutr J. 2015;14:49.
Sundy JS, Baraf HS, Yood RA, Edwards NL, Gutierrez-Urena SR, Treadwell EL, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of pegloticase for the treatment of chronic gout in patients refractory to conventional treatment: two randomized controlled trials. JAMA. 2011;306:711–20.
Tausche AK, Alten R, Dalbeth N, Kopicko J, Fung M, Adler S, et al. Lesinurad monotherapy in gout patients intolerant to a xanthine oxidase inhibitor: a 6-month phase 3 clinical trial and extension study. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2017;56:2170–8.
Dalbeth N, Jones G, Terkeltaub R, Khanna D, Kopicko J, Bhakta N, et al. Lesinurad, a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor, in combination with febuxostat in patients with tophaceous gout: findings of a phase III clinical trial. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017;69:1903–13.
Casey V, Dwyer JT, Berkey CS, Coleman KA, Gardner J, Valadian I. Long-term memory of body weight and past weight satisfaction: a longitudinal follow-up study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:1493–8.
Perry GS, Byers TE, Mokdad AH, Serdula MK, Williamson DF. The validity of self-reports of past body weights by U.S. adults. Epidemiology. 1995;6:61–6.
Sorkin JD, Muller DC, Andres R. Longitudinal change in the heights of men and women: consequential effects on body mass index. Epidemiol Rev. 1999;21(2):247–60.
Must A, Willett WC, Dietz WH. Remote recall of childhood height, weight, and body build by elderly subjects. Am J Epidemiol. 1993;138(1):56–64.
Heaney R, Ryan R. Relation between measured and recalled body height. N Engl J Med. 1988;319(12):795–6.
McAdams M, Maynard J, Baer A, Kottgen A, Clip S, Coresh J, et al. Reliability and sensitivity of the self-report of physician-diagnosed gout in the campaign against cancer and heart disease and the atherosclerosis risk in the community cohorts. J Rheumatol. 2011;38:135–41.